Wind Power Variability & Electric Power Quality

  1. Research
  2. Software
  3. Teaching in Engineering
  4. Degree Projects
  5. Tutorials
  6. Bibliography
  7. Links
Defence Universitary Center

Wind Power Variability in the Grid

Ph.D. Thesis of J. Mur Amada,
Zaragoza University, October 2009.
ISBN: 978-84-694-3901-2

M. Arribas Torcal, R. Dufo-López, J.L. Bernal-Agustín, J. Antonio Domínguez Navarro and J. Mur Amada, "Optimización de sistemas híbridos fotovoltaico-eólicobaterías para abastecer poblados en África", XXIII Jornadas Hispano-Lusas. Valencia, 2013.

J. Mur Amada, J. Sallán Arasanz , "Power Fluctuations in a Wind Farm Compared to a Single Turbine", Chapter 6 published in the book "From Turbine to Wind Farms ", Ed. Intech, ISBN 978-953-307-237-1, April 2011.

J. Mur Amada, A.A. Bayod Rújula, "Variability of Wind and Wind Power", Chapter 12 published in the book "Wind Power", Ed. Intech, ISBN 978-953-7619-81-7, June 2010.

J. Mur Amada, A.A. Bayod Rújula, "Flicker emission of wind farms during continuous operation", 7th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power and Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farm. Madrid, May 2008.

J. Mur Amada, A.A. Bayod Rújula, "Characterization of Spectral Density of Wind Farm Power Output", 9th Conference on Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU'2007), Barcelona, 2007. ISBN 978-84-690-9441-9.

J. Mur Amada, A.A. Bayod Rújula, "Pace of Tower Shadow Fluctuations in a Wind Farm", 9th Conference on Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU'2007), Barcelona, 2007. ISBN 978-84-690-9441-9.

J. Mur Amada, A.A. Bayod Rújula, "Wind Power Variability Model. Part I - Foundations", 9th Conference on Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU'2007), Barcelona, 2007. ISBN 978-84-690-9441-9.

J. Mur Amada, A.A. Bayod Rújula, "Wind Power Variability Model. Part II - Probabilistic Power Flow", 9th Conference on Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU'2007), Barcelona, 2007. ISBN 978-84-690-9441-9.

J. Mur Amada, A.A. Bayod Rújula, "Wind Power Variability Model. Part III - Validation of the model", 9th Conference on Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU'2007), Barcelona, 2007. ISBN 978-84-690-9441-9.

J. Mur Amada, Ma Paz Comech Moreno, "Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Wind Energy Regarding its Statistical Nature", Sixth International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power and Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farm. Delft, 2006

M.P. Comech, S. Martín, J. Mur, I. Franco, M. García-Gracia, "Modelling of squirrel cage turbine for voltage dips studies", Sixth International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power and Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farm. Delft, 2006

J.A. Domínguez, J.M. Yusta, A.A. Bayod, J.L. Bernal, M.J. Velilla, J. Mur, M.A. García, A. Diaz "Optimal Location of Small Generators in Weak Networks with Optimal Operation", ICREP '05 (Internacional Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality), Zaragoza 2005

A.A. Bayod Rújula, J. Mur Amada, J.L. Bernal-Agustín, J.M. Yusta Loyo, J.A. Domínguez Navarro; "Definitions for Distributed Generation", ICREP '05 (Internacional Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality), Zaragoza 2005

Angel Antonio Bayod Rújula; Joaquín Mur Amada ; Jesús Sallán Arasanz, "Improving the electrical value of Wind Power Plants", EWEC '03 (European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition). Madrid, 2003

D. García García, M.P. Comech, J. Mur, J.B. Arroyo, M. García-Gracia, "Grid Connection of Wind Farms", EWEC '03 (European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition). Madrid, 2003

Joaquín Mur, Ángel A. Bayod, Jesús Sallán "Profile of voltage in grids with wind farms" EWEC '03 (European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition). Madrid, 2003

Joaquín Mur, Ángel A. Bayod, Jesús Sallán "An Experimental Study on Power Quality Wind Turbines" EWEC '03 (European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition). Madrid, 2003

Ángel A. Bayod, Joaquín Mur, Jesús Sallán "Active system for voltage control in wind generation units " EPE '03 (European conference on power electronics), Toulouse, 2003

Joaquín Mur, Jesús Sallán , Ángel A. Bayod, "Statistical model of wind farms for power flow" ICREP '03 (Internacional Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality), Vigo 2003.

Joaquín Mur, Jesús Sallán , Ángel A. Bayod, "Power Quality Analysis of Wind Turbines. Part I - Static Análisis", ICREP '03 (Internacional Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality), Vigo 2003.

Joaquín Mur, Ángel Antonio Bayod, Samuel Ortiz , Roberto Zapata "Power Quality Analysis of Wind Turbines. Part II - Dynamic Analysis", ICREP '03 (Internacional Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality), Vigo 2003.

Joaquín Mur, Ángel Antonio Bayod "Characterization of wind farm energy production in a zone by artificial neuronal networks", ICREP '03 (Internacional Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality), Vigo 2003.

Angel A. Bayod Rújula; José A. Domínguez Navarro; Joaquín Mur Amada ; Julio J. Melero Estela, "Combined system for reactive power control in wind farms", IEEE Industrial Electronics Conference (IECON 2002), Sevilla 2002

Angel A. Bayod Rújula; José A. Domínguez Navarro; Joaquín Mur Amada ; Julio J. Melero Estela, "Hybrid Configuration For Reactive Power Management In Power Systems", Proceedings of the Second IASTED International Conference Power and Energy Systems (EuroPES 2002). Creta, 2002

Ángel Antonio Bayod Rújula , José Antonio Domínguez Navarro , Julio Melero Estela, Joaquín Mur Amada "Configuración híbrida FC-TCR-FA para gestión de reactiva en redes eléctricas", XII Reunión de Grupos de Investigación en Ingeniería Eléctrica, Córdoba 2002.

M. Sanz A. Llombart A. A. Bayod J. Mur, "Power quality measurements and analisys for wind turbines", IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technical Conference 2000, pp. 1167-1172. May 2000, Baltimore.

M. Sanz, A. Llombart, A. A. Bayod, J. Mur, R. Sierra "Análisis de la calidad de la energía generada en parques eólicos" X Reunión de Grupos de Investigación en Energía Eléctrica. Santander, 2000.

M. Sanz, J. Mur, F. Gómez, R. Zapata , "Sistema de medida de calidad de red para parques eólicos", IX Jornadas Hispano-Lusas. Lisboa, 1998.

F.J. Martínez, L.C. Montanés, J. Mur, A. Llombart , M. García , "Modeling lighting arresters using SPICE", 6 th international Conference on INDUSTRIAL METROLOGY, CIMI'95. Zaragoza, 1995.

 

Software about Wind Energy

WINDFREEDOM, a piece of software to retrieve and analyze meteorological data worldwide, with emphasis on wind power variability and comparison of fluctuations among meteorological weather stations.

EQWIGUST, a piece of software that generates gust or random samples of equivalent wind with certain features. It is intended for use in wind turbine and wind farm simulations.

Free application for detecting contours in images using a multirresolution algorithm (project, program and code source) Multirresolution Image Processing Software

Lecturer at "Centro Universitario de la Defensa Zaragoza" from 2011

Defence Universitary Center

Profesor de la asignatura "Fundamentos de Electrotecnia", perteneciente al grado en Ingeniería en Organización Industrial en el Centro Universitario de la Defensa. (Lecturer of 'Electrical Circuits' in the bachelor degree of Management Engineering at the Defence University Center).

Libros docentes: (educational books)

Proyectos de innovación docente realizados desde septiembre 2011 (Innovative Learning Projects from September 2011, in Spanish)

Lecturer at Zaragoza University from 2000 to 2011

explaining inventor
earth magnetism
thinking

Mur J. "Electricity and Magnetism. Class slides" (in Spanish).

Mur J. "Virtual Electrostatic, Magnetic & Circuit Laboratory" (in Spanish) Usón A.; Letosa J.; Mur J. "Applied problems of Electricity and Magnetism" Problem 14, Lightning stroke in a lightning conductor (in Spanish).

The lectrurers of Electromagnetism at the University of Zaragoza (EDEMUZ) has developed for more than a decade teaching resources in technical courses of electromagnetism and other courses related to electrical engineering. We have also implemented procedures for active and cooperative teaching / learning in these areas, trying to anticipate the changes brought by the Bologna plan in higher education.

In this period, we have developed, in collaboration with the students, resources for improving teaching and we have conducted numerous studies of educational innovation aimed at the first technical engineering courses.

The main actions the group can be summarized as: obtaining grants from the University of Zaragoza for thirteen projects teaching innovation, implementation of an external evaluation of the results of student learning and teaching process, publication of ten national educational conference papers and four international conferences, implementation of a teaching methodology based on active and cooperative procedures in two areas of technical engineering.

Among the teaching resources developed, the 53 experiments available to perform in class or in laboratories should be noted. They are organized in a web site that describes the demonstrations and shows videos of them and some prototypes of large electrostatic machines. Some test questions are also available online and the websites of the courses that guide the student and facilitate their self-learning.

(EDEMUZ: Equipo Docente de Electricidad y Magnetismo en la Universidad de Zaragoza)

El Equipo Docente de Electromagnetismo de la Universidad de Zaragoza (EDEMUZ) ha desarrollado durante más de una década recursos docentes en cursos técnicos de electromagnetismo y otras asignaturas relativas a la ingeniería eléctricas. También ha implantado procedimientos activos y cooperativos de ensenanza/aprendizaje en estas materias, tratando de adelantarse a los cambios que ha traído el plan Bolonia.

En este periodo ha desarrollado, en colaboración con los propios estudiantes, recursos para mejorar la docencia y ha llevado a cabo numerosos ensayos de innovación docente orientados a los primeros cursos de ingenierías técnicas.

Las principales acciones del grupo se resumen así: obtención de ayudas de la Universidad de Zaragoza para trece proyectos de innovación docente, realización de una evaluación externa de los resultados de aprendizaje de los estudiantes y del procedimiento docente, publicación de diez comunicaciones a congresos docentes nacionales y cuatro a congresos internacionales, implantación de una metodología docente basada en procedimientos activos y cooperativos en dos especialidades de ingeniería técnica.

Entre los recursos docentes desarrollados hay que destacar los 53 experimentos disponibles para realizar en clase o en los laboratorios, organizados en un portal web que describe las demostraciones y muestra vídeos de las mismas, los prototipos de grandes máquinas electrostáticas, las preguntas de test disponibles online, las páginas web de las asignaturas que orientan al estudiante y facilitan su autoaprendizaje.

EDEMUZ

Photo shot by Esther Casas for an interview for a local newspaper (El Heraldo de Aragón) publised on 10/10/10 (view article pdf file).
Foto tomada por Esther Casas el 7/10/2010 antes de la entrevista de Patricia Ciria para un artículo publicado en el Heraldo el 10/10/10 (ver el artículo pdf file).

Degree Projects and Master Thesis about wind power

Rodrigo González Navas , "Diseño, construcción y análisis de un convertidor DC-DC de 1 kW", Universidad de Zaragoza, Septiembre 2013.

Joaquín Capilla Mozas , "Estudio de la variabilidad de la generación eólica en España", Universidad de Zaragoza, Diciembre 2011.

Raúl Vicastillo-Golvano, "Optimización de un banco de condensadores y reactancias en la subestación de un parque eólico" (Reactive power management in Spanish wind farms), Universidad de Zaragoza, Julio 2009.

Variability of wind power in some close sites in Spain
(Variabilidad de la generación eólica en diferentes emplazamientos en España)

Luis González Comendador, "ESTUDIO DE LA VARIABILIDAD DE LA GENERACIÓN EÓLICA EN DIFERENTES EMPLAZAMIENTOS", Universidad de Zaragoza, Diciembre 2010.

Grid impact of a wind farm in the Jonic Islands
(Repercusiones de la instalación de parques eólicos en la red eléctrica de las islas Jónicas )

Stavros Koutsioumpas, "REPERCUSIONES DE LA INSTALACIÓN DE UN PARQUE EÓLICO EN LA RED ELÉCTRICA (Estudio estacionario y aplicación en las islas Jónicas)", Universidad de Zaragoza, Febrero 2004

Tutorials about Wind Energy

J. Mur Amada, "Introducción al control de aerogeneradores". 2005. (Introduction to wind turbine control). Documentation for a session at the master of renewable energy of the University of Zaragoza.

J. Mur Amada, "Curso de energía eólica". 2001, (Basic introduction to wind power and its control). ISBN: 978-84-95050-08-3.

J. Mur Amada, "Sensores meteorológicos utilizados en energía eólica" (2004). ISBN: 978-84-95050-40-3

Bibilography on Wind Power Variability

The figures in the references correspond to the PhD. Thesis Dissertation "Wind Power Variability in the Grid", by J. Mur Amada, Zaragoza University, October 2009. Some of them are broken now. The references greater than 421 have been updated in 2011 .

  1. Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC
  2. "Report finds US is world's top wind producer". The Guardian. 2008-07-30. http://www.guardian.co.uk/ environment/2008/jul/30/windpower.energy. Retrieved 2008-08-24.
  3. EnerNex Corporation, "Final Report - 2006 Minnesota Wind Integration Study, Volume 1," Nov. 30, 2006.
    Vol. 2
  4. U.S. Department of Energy, "20% Wind Energy by 2030. Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply", July 2008
  5. J. F. DeCarolis, D.W. Keith, "The Costs of Wind's Variability: Is There a Threshold?", The Electricity Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp. 69-77, 2005
  6. U.S. Department of Energy, "Wind Energy Myths", Wind Powering America Fact Sheet Series, May 2005
  7. Stacy Feldman, "The Wind Power Variability Myth Gets Debunked, Again", SolveClimate, Jul 17th, 2009.
  8. Pöyry PLC, "Impact of intermittency. How wind intermittency could shape the electricity markets?". Available at http://www.ilexenergy.com/
  9. International Energy Agency, "Variability Of Wind Power And Other Renewables. Management options and strategies", 2005. Available: http://www.iea.org /textbase/papers/2005/variability.pdf
  10. B. K. Sovacool, "The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricity generators: Technical barrier or rhetorical excuse?", Utilities Policy 17 (2009), 288-296
  11. R. Piwko, G. Boukarikm, K. Clark, G. Haringa, G. Jordan, N. Miller, Y. Zhou, J. Zimberlin, (2004, Feb.). The Effects of Integrating Wind Power on Transmission System Planning, Reliability, and Operations. GE Power Systems Energy Consulting. Schenectady, NY. Available: http://www.nyserda.org/publications/wind_integration_report.pdf
  12. C. Lindsay Anderson, Judith B. Cardell, "Reducing the Variability of Wind Power Generation for Participation in Day Ahead Electricity Markets", Proceedings of the 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2008.
  13. G. Boyle "Renewable Electricity and the Grid. The Challenge of Variability", September 2007, Earthscan
  14. E.M. Constantinescu, V.M. Zavala, M. Rocklin, S. Lee, M. Anitescu, "Unit Commitment with Wind Power Generation: Integrating Wind Forecast Uncertainty and Stochastic Programming", Argonne National Laboratory, September 2009
  15. M.Milligan, "Modelling Utility-Scale Wind Power Plants. Part 2: Capacity Credit", Wind Energy, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp. 167-206, 2001
  16. B. Parsons, Y. Wan, B. Kirby, "Wind Farm Power Fluctuations, Ancillary Services, and System Operating Impact Analysis Activities in the United States", National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2001
  17. B. Parson, M. Milligan, B. Zavadil, D. Brooks, B. Kirby, K. Dragoon, J. Caldwell, "Grid Impacts of Wind Power: A summary of recent studies in the United States" Wind Energy , vol. 7, Apr./Jun. 2004, pp 87-108.
  18. Julija Matevosyan, "Wind power integration in power systems with transmission bottlenecks", KTH, Stockholm, 2006. Summary
  19. H. Holttinen, B. Lemström, P. Meibom, H. Bindner, A. Orths, F. van Hulle, C. Ensslin, A. Tiedemann, L. Hofmann, W. Winter, A. Tuohy, M. O'Malley, P. Smith, J. Pierik, J. Olav Tande, A. Estanqueiro, J. Ricardo, E. Gomez, L. Söder, G. Strbac, A. Shakoor, J. C. Smith, B. Parsons, M. Milligan, Y. H. Wan, "Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power. State-of-the-art report", VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2007.
    => Final report, Phase one 2006-08
  20. I. Martí, G. Kariniotakis, P. Pinson, I. Sanchez, T. S. Nielsen, H. Madsen, G. Giebel, J. Usaola, A.M. Palomares, R. Brownsword, J. Tambke, U. Focken, M. Lange, G. Sideratos, G. Descombes, "Evaluation of Advanced Wind Power Forecasting Models - Results of the Anemos Project", EWEC 2006, Athens.
    => Presentation
  21. Ignacio J Ramirez-Rosado, L. Alfredo Fernandez-Jimenez, Cláudio Monteiro, Joao Sousa, Ricardo Bessa, "Comparison of two new short-term wind-power forecasting systems", Renewable Energy (2009)
  22. J. Juban, L. Fugon, G. Kariniotakis, "Uncertainty Estimation of Wind Power Forecasts", EWEC 2008, Brussels, Belgium.
  23. Y. Wan, D. Bucaneg, "Short-term power fluctuations of large wind power plants", Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Volume 124, pp. 427-431, 2002
  24. J. Apt, "The spectrum of power from wind turbines", Journal of Power Sources 169 (2007) 369-374
  25. P. Cappers, C. Goldman, D. Kathan "Demand response in U.S. electricity markets: Empirical evidence", Energy (2009).
  26. K. Porter, D. Yen-Nakafuji and B. Morgenstern, "A Review of the International Experience with Integrating Wind Energy Generation", The Electricity Journal, Volume 20, Issue 8, October 2007, Pages 48-59.
  27. A D. Lamont, "Assessing the long-term system value of intermittent electric generation technologies", Energy Economics 30 (2008) 1208-1231
  28. M. A. Matos, R. Bessa, "Operating Reserve Adequacy Evaluation using Uncertainties of Wind Power Forecast", IEEE Bucharest PowerTech Conference, June 28th 2009.
  29. H. Holttinen, "Estimating the impacts of wind power on power systems - summary of IEA Wind collaboration", Environ. Res. Lett. 3 (2008)
  30. E. Hirst, J. Hild, "The Value of Wind Energy as a Function of Wind Capacity", The Electricity Journal, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp. 11-20, 2004.
  31. D. Milborrow, "Managing Variability", A report to WWF-UK, RSPB, Greenpeace UK and Friends of the Earth EWNI, 24 June 2009.
  32. D. Snieckus, "Myth of wind variability problems debunked", Recharge News, July 9 2009.
  33. Operating the Electricity Transmission Networks in 2020. Initial Consultation. UK's National Grid, June 2009.
  34. IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2006, July 2006
  35. M. Sanz A. Llombart A. A. Bayod J. Mur, "Power quality measurements and analisys for wind turbines", IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technical Conference 2000, pp. 1167-1172. May 2000, Baltimore.
  36. J. Mur Amada, A.A. Bayod Rújula, "Characterization of Spectral Density of Wind Farm Power Output", 9th Conference on Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU'2007), Barcelona, 2007. ISBN 978-84-690-9441-9.
  37. W. Schlez, D. Infield, "Horizontal, two point coherence for separations greater than the measurement height", Boundary-Layer Meteor. 87 (1998), 459-480.
  38. Poul Sorensen, Nicolaos A. Cutululis, Antonio Vigueras-Rodríguez, Henrik Madsen, Pierre Pinson, Leo E. Jensen, Jesper Hjerrild and Martin Donovan, "Modelling of Power Fluctuations from Large Offshore Wind Farms", WIND ENERGY, October 2007
  39. António P. Martins, Paulo C. Costa Adriano, S. Carvalho, "Coherence and wakes in wind models for electromechanical and power systems standard simulations", EWEC 2006, Athens.
  40. G. Papaefthymiou and Bernd Klöckl "MCMC for Wind Power Simulation", IEEE Trans. Energy Conv., 2008 (to be published).
  41. G. Papaefthymiou, "Integration of Stochastic Generation in Power Systems", Ph.D. Dissertation, Delf University, Neetherlands, 2007.
  42. Cristian Nichita, Dragos Luca, Brayima Dakyo, and Emil Ceanga, "Large Band Simulation of the Wind Speed for Real Time Wind Turbine Simulators", IEEE Transactions On Energy Conversion, Vol. 17, No. 4, December 2002.
  43. T. Petru and T. Thiringer, "Modeling of Wind Turbines for Power System Studies", IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, Vol. 17, No. 4, Nov. 2002, pp. 1132 - 1139
  44. P. Rosas, "Dynamic influences of wind power on the power system", Ph. D Thesis, Orsted-DTU, March 2003, ISBN: 87-91184-16-9.
  45. W. Schlez, D. Infield, "Horizontal, two point coherence for separations greater than the measurement height", Boundary-Layer Meteor. 87 (1998), 459-480.
  46. P. Sorensen, N. A. Cutululis, A. Vigueras-Rodríguez, H. Madsen, P. Pinson, L. E. Jensen, J. Hjerrild, M. Donovan, "Modelling of Power Fluctuations from Large Offshore Wind Farms", Wind Energy, Oct 2007.
  47. E. Welfonder, R. Neifer and M. Spaimer, "Development And Experimental Identification Of Dynamic Models For Wind Turbines", Control Eng. Practice, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 63-73, 1997.
  48. J. Gordon Leishman "Challenges in Modeling the Unsteady Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines", 21st ASME Wind Energy Symposium, Reno, NV, Jan. 14-17, 2002.
  49. D. S. L. Dolan and P. W. Lehn "Real-Time Wind Turbine Emulator Suitable for Power Quality and Dynamic Control Studies" International Conference on Power Systems Transients (IPST'05) in Montreal, Canada on June 19-23,2005.
  50. D. S. L. Dolan and P. W. Lehn, "Simulation Model of Wind Turbine 3p Torque Oscillations due to Wind Shear and Tower Shadow", IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, Sept. 2006, Vol. 21, N. 3, pp. 717-724.
  51. J. Cidrás, A.E. Feijóo, C. Carrillo González, "Synchronization of Asynchronous Wind Turbines" IEEE Trans, on Energy Conv., Vol. 17, No 4, Nov. 2002, pp 1162-1169
  52. J. Mur, A.A. Bayod, S. Ortiz, R. Zapata, "Power Quality Analysis of Wind Turbines. Part II - Dynamic Analysis", ICREP 2003, Vigo.
  53. M. Sanz, A. Llombart, Á. A. Bayod, J. Mur, "Power Quality Measurements and Analysis for Wind Turbines" IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technical Conference, IMTC 2000, pp. 1167-1172.
  54. J. Mur, "WINDFREDOM, WIND variability in the FREquency DOMain", 2009. Program under the GNU General Program License, available freely at http://www.windygrid.org/software.
  55. Benoit Cushman-Roisin, "Environmental Fluid Mechanics", John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
  56. Simon Watson, "Introduction to the Atmospheric Boundary Layer", CREST MSc Flexible & Distance Learning Series. Wind Power Fundamentals. Crest, Lougborough University, 2003. (not online)
  57. Kolmogorov, A. N., 1941. Dissipation of energy in locally isotropic turbulence. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 32, 19-21.
  58. Y. Tamura, A. Karrem, G. Solari, K. C. S.Kwok, J. D. Holmes. Report from IAWE Working Group WGE-Dynamic Response. 2003.
  59. K. R Sreenivasan, A. J. Chambers, and R. A. Antonia, "Accuracy of moments of velocity and scalar fluctuations in the atmospheric surface layer." Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 14, 341-359, (1978).
  60. Kaimal, J. and J. Finnigan, 1994: "Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows; Their Structure and Measurements". Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
  61. M. Metzger and H. Holmes "Time Scales in the Unstable Atmospheric Surface Layer", Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 126, No. 1, January 2008.
  62. Stijn de Waele, A. van Dijk, P. Broersen, and P. G. Duynkerke, "Estimation of the integral time scale with time series models", 15th Conference on Boundary Layer and Turbulence, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2002.
  63. E. L. Petersen, N. G. Mortensen, L. Landberg, J. Hojstrup and H. P. Frank, "Wind Power Meteorology", Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, December 1997. Riso-I-1206(EN).
  64. S. E. Larsen, H. R. Olesen and J. Hojstrup, "Parameterization of the low frequency part of spectra of horizontal velocity components in the stable surface boundary layer", Turbulence and Diffusion in Stable Environments, ed. J. C. R. Hunt, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1985, pp. 181-204.
  65. J. Hojstrup, S. E. Larsen and P. H. Madsen, "Power spectra of horizontal wind components in the neutral atmospheric surface boundary layer", AMS 9th Symposium on Turbulence and Diffusion, Roskilde, Denmark 1990, pp. 305-308.
  66. A. A. Townsend, "The structure of turbulent shear flows", 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, 1976.
  67. S. B. Pope , "Turbulent Flows", Cambridge University Press (2000)
  68. S. Frandsen (Ed.), L. Chacon, A. Crespo, P. Enevoldsen, R. Gomez-Elvira, J. Hernandez, J. Hojstrup, F. Manuel, K. Thomsen, and P. Sorensen., "Measurements on and Modelling of Offshore Wind Farms", Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark 1996.
  69. Antebi, J., Zarghamee, M. S., & Kan, F. W. 1997, "Wind Characterization and Beam Pointing Error - Large Millimeter Telescope", SGH Report to LMT Project
  70. J. C. Kaimal, J. C. Wyngaard, Y. Izumi, and O. R. Cote, "Spectral Characteristics of Surface Layer Turbulence". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 98, 1972.
  71. Davenport, A. G. 1961, Quart. J. Royal Meteorol. Soc., 87, 194
  72. T. von Karman, "Progress in the statistical theory of turbulence". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1948; 34: 530-539.
  73. Morfiadakis EE, Glinou GL, Koulouvari MJ., "The Suitability of the von Karman Spectrum for the Structure of Turbulence in a Complex Terrain Wind Farm". Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, vol. 62, 1996, 237-257.
  74. Shiau B-S, Chen Y-B. "Observation on Wind Turbulence Characteristics and Velocity Spectra near the Ground at the Coastal Region". Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, vol. 90, 2002, 1671-1681.
  75. Frandsen S. "Turbulence and Turbulence-Generated Structural Loading in Wind Turbine Clusters". Riso-R-1188(EN), Roskilde, 2007.
  76. K. E. Kaasen, "Time Domain Model Representations of Standard Wind Gust Spectra", 9th Int. Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Brest, France, 1999.
  77. P. Teigen, A. Naess, "Extreme Response of Floating Structures in Combined Wind and Waves", Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Vol. 125, pp. 87-93, May 2003
  78. Isaac Van der Hoven, "Power Spectrum Of Horizontal Wind Speed In The Frequency Range From 0.0007 To 900 Cycles Per Hour", Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 14, Issue 2, pp. 160-164
  79. F. Fiedler and H. A. Panofsky, "Atmospheric Scales and Spectral Gaps", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 51, Issue 12 (Dec. 1970).
  80. T. Heggem, R. Lende and J. Lovseth, "Analysis of Long Time Series of Coastal Wind", Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 55, Issue 18, pp. 2907-2917 (September 1998)
  81. P. Sorensen, N. A. Cutululis, J. Hjerrild, L. Jensen, M. Donovan, L. E. A. Christensen, H. Madsen, A. Vigueras-Rodríguez, "Power Fluctuations from Large Offshore Wind Farms", Nordic Wind Power Conference, 22-23 May, 2006, Espoo, Finland.
    => Final Report
  82. K. Saranyasoontorn, L. Manuel, P. S. Veers, "A Comparison of Standard Coherence Models form Inflow Turbulence With Estimates from Field Measurements", Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 126 (2004), Issue 4, pp. 1069-1082
  83. D. Baldocchi, E. Falgea and K. Wilsonc, "A spectral analysis of biosphere-atmosphere trace gas flux densities and meteorological variables across hour to multi-year time scales", Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 107, Issue 1, 1 March 2001, Pages 1-27.
  84. M. Courtney, I. Troen. "Wind speed spectrum from one year of continuous 8 Hz measurements". In: 9. Symposium on turbulence and diffusion. 9. Symposium on turbulence and diffusion, Roskilde, 30 Apr - 3 May 1990. Jensen, N.O.; Kristensen, L.; Larsen, S.E. (eds.), (American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 1990) p. 301-304
  85. P. Sorensen and N. Cutululis, A. Vigueras-Rodríguez, H. Madsen, P. Pinson, L. E. Jensen, J. Hjerrild, M. Donovan, "Modelling of Power Fluctuations from Large Offshore Wind Farms", Wind Energy Vol. 11 (2008), pp. 29-43.
  86. S. Frandsen, H.E. Jorgensen, J.D. Sorensen, "Relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models", 2007 European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition, Milan (IT), 7-10 May 2007. (2007) p. 128-132.
  87. K. Saranyasoontorn, L. Manuel, P. S. Veers, "On estimation of coherence in inflow turbulence based on field measurements", Proceedings of the 2004 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, pp. 424-434, Reno, Nevada, January 2004.
  88. A. D. Hansen, C. Jauch, P. Sorensen, F. Iov, F. Blaabjerg "Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT" Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, December 2003, Riso-R-1400(EN).
  89. A. D. Hansen, F. Iov, P. Sorensen, N. Cutululis, C. Jauch, F. Blaabjerg, "Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT", Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark August 2007, Riso-R-1400(ed.2)(EN).
  90. Burton T, Sharpe D, Jenkins N, Bossanyi E., "Wind Energy Handbook". John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England, 2001.
  91. Veers PS. "Three-Dimensional Wind Simulation". Sandia Report, SAND88-0152 l UC-261, 1988.
  92. S.Heier "Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems". John Wiley & Sons, New York 2006 (2nd edition).
  93. T. F. Pedersen, J.-A. Dahlberg, A. Cuerva, F. Mouzakis, P. Busche, P. Eecen A. Sanz-Andres, S Franchini, S. M. Petersen, "ACCUWIND -Accurate Wind Speed Measurements in Wind Energy" Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, July 2006.
  94. Mann J. "Wind Field Simulation". Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, vol. 13, no 4, 1998, 269-282.
  95. Ioannis Antoniou et al. "Influence of wind characteristics on turbine performance", EWEC, 2007
  96. T.G. van Engelen, "Control design based on aero-hydro-servo-elastic linear models from TURBU (ECN)", EWEC 2007.
  97. IEC 61400-1, "Wind Turbines - Part 1: Design Requirements, Int. Std.", 3rd Ed. 2005-2008.
    => Preview
  98. P. Kristensen, "Power spectra and cross-spectra as seen from the moving blade of a wind turbine", J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 12, 245-250 (1983).
  99. A. G. Davenport, "The spectrum of horizontal gustiness near the ground in high winds", Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 87, 194-211 (1961).
  100. J. Hojstrup, "Spectral coherence in wind turbine wakes", J. Wind. Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 80, 137-146 (1999).
  101. P. Kristensen and N. O. Jensen, "Lateral coherence in isotropic turbulence and in the natural wind", Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 17, 353-373 (1979).
  102. P. J. Vermeer, J.N. Sorensen, A. Crespo, "Wind turbine wake aerodynamics", Progress in Aerospace Sciences 39 (2003) 467-510.
  103. S. Frandsen, R. Barthelmie, O. Rathmann, H. E. Jorgensen, J. Badger, K. Hansen, S. Ott, P. E. Rethore, S. E. Larsen, L. E. Jensen, "Summary report: The shadow effect of large wind farms: measurements, data analysis and modelling", Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark. October 2007, Riso-R- 1615 (EN)
  104. S. Frandsen, H.E. Jorgensen, J.D. Sorensen, "Relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models", EWEC 2007, p. 128-132.
  105. P. Sorensen. "Frequency domain modelling of wind turbine structures". Riso-R-749. Roskilde 1994.
  106. Wilkie J, Leithead WE, Anderson C, "Modelling of Wind Turbines by Simple Models". Wind Engineering, Vol. 14, no 4, 1990.
  107. I. Troen and E. L. Petersen, "European Wind Atlas", Riso, 1989.
  108. J. Tambke, J.A.T. Bye, B. Lange and J.-O. Wolff , "Wind Speed Profiles above the North Sea", Wind Energy - Proceedings of the Euromech Colloquium, Springer, Berlin 2007, p. 27 - 32
  109. D. A. Spera, "Wind Turbine Technology", ASME Press, New York, 1994.
  110. B. H. Bailey and S. L. McDonald, "Wind resource assessment handbook", AWS Scientific, Inc., www.awsscientific.com, April 1997
  111. A. J. Eggers, Jr., R. Digumarthi, K. Chaney "Wind Shear and Turbulence Effects on Rotor Fatigue and Loads Control", Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 125, Nov. 2003.
  112. Kelley, Neil, Shirazi, Mari, Hand, Maureen, and Jager, David, "Low-Level Jet Turbulence Field Test,'' NREL/NWTC, 2002 DOE Wind Program Review Meeting, May 7-9.
  113. S. REHMAN; N. M. AL-ABBADI "Wind shear coefficients and their effect on energy production", Energy conversion and management, 2005, vol. 46, n 15-16, pp. 2578-2591
  114. Engström S, Ganander H, Lindström R. "Short Term Power Variations in the Output of Wind Turbines". DEWI Magazin, no 19, 2001.
  115. S. Hier, "Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems", Wiley, 1998.
  116. J. Sallán-Arasanz, "Estudio y desarrollo de nuevos sistemas de generación y conexión a red para máquinas asíncronas de rotor en cortocircuito impulsadas por turbinas eólicas para su cuncionamiento a velocidad variable", Ph.D. Thesis, Universidad de Zaragoza, June 2002 (in Spanish).
  117. J. F. Sanz Osorio, "Optimización de sistemas integrados de energías renovables para el abastecimiento de núcleos aislados.", Ph.D. Thesis, Universidad de Zaragoza, June 2007 (in Spanish).
  118. Sorensen P., Hansen A.D., Janosi L., Bech J., Bak-Jensen B. "Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system". Riso National Laboratory, 2001. Riso-R-1281
  119. B. Stoevesandt, J. Peinke, A. Shishkin and C. Wagner, "Numerical simulation of dynamic stall using spectral/hp method", Wind Energy - Proceedings of the Euromech Colloquium, Springer, Berlin 2007, p. 241 - 244
  120. M.P. Comech-Moreno, "Análisis y ensayo de sistemas eólicos ante huecos de tension", Ph.D. Thesis, Universidad de Zaragoza, Octubre de 2007 (in Spanish).
  121. V. Akhmatov, "Analysis of Dynamic Behaviour of Electrical Power Systems with Large Amount of Wind Power", Orsted-DTU, April 2003.
  122. F. D. Bianchi, H. De Battista, and R. J. Mantz, "Wind Turbine Control Systems. Principles, Modelling and Gain Scheduling Design", Springer, 2006.
  123. Chee-Mun Ong "Dynamic simulation of electric machinery using Matlab/Simulink", Prentice Hall, 1998.
  124. B.C. Lesieutre, P.W. Sauer, M.A. Pai, "Development and comparative study of induction machine based dynamic P, Q load models", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 10, No. 1. February 1995.
  125. G.K. Singh, "Self-excited induction generator research - a survey", Electric Power Systems Research 69 (2004) 107-114.
  126. J.A.A. Melkebeek, D.W. Novotny, "Small signal dynamic analysis of regeneration and self-excitation in induction machines", Electric Machines Power Syst. 8 (1983) 259-280.
  127. Y. Utug, M. Demirekler ,"Modelling, analysis and control of a wind-turbine driven self-excited induction generator", IEE Proceedings, Vol. 135, Pt. C, No. 4, July 1988
  128. F. Wu, X.P. Zhang, , K. Godfrey and P. Ju, "Modeling and Control of Wind Turbine with Doubly Fed Induction Generator", PSCE 2006 conference.
  129. D. Nagaria, G. N. Pillai, H. O. Gupta, "Small signal stability analysis of variable speed wind energy conversion system equipped with DFIG" International Journal of Distributed Energy Resources, Volume 4 Number 3 (2008) Pages 233 - 251
  130. R. Erickson, S. Angkititrakul, and K. Almazeedi, "A New Family of Multilevel Matrix Converters for Wind Power Applications: Final Report". NREL Subcontract Report NREL/SR-500-40051, December 2006.
  131. S. Masoud Barakati, "Modeling and Controller Design of a Wind Energy Conversion System Including a Matrix Converter", Ph. D. Thesis, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2008.
  132. V. Akhmatov, H. Knudsen, "An aggregate model of a grid-connected, large scale, offshore wind farm for power stability investigations-importance of windmill mechanical system", Electrical Power Systems 24 (2002) 709-717.
  133. Kazachkov, S. Stapleton, "Modeling wind farms for power system stability studies", Power Technology Newsletter Issue 95, April 2004
  134. P.M. Fernandez, J.R. Saenz, F. Jurado, "Dynamic models of wind farms with fixed speed wind turbines", Renewable Energy, 31 (8), pp.1203-1230, Jul 2006.
  135. R. Arens, "Complex Processes for Envelopes of Normal Noise", IRE Transactions on Information Theory, September 1958, pp.204-207.
  136. N. S. Pannu, A. J. McCoy and R. J. Read, "Application of the complex multivariate normal distribution to crystallographic methods with insights into multiple isomorphous replacement phasisng", Acta Cryst. (2003), D59, 1801-1808.
  137. M. Sanz, J. Mur, F. Gómez, R. Zapata , "Sistema de medida de calidad de red para parques eólicos", IX Jornadas Hispano-Lusas. Lisboa, 1998.
  138. M. Sanz, A. Llombart, A. A. Bayod, J. Mur, R. Sierra "Análisis de la calidad de la energía generada en parques eólicos" X Reunión de Grupos de Investigación en Energía Eléctrica. Santander, 2000.
  139. M. Sanz A. Llombart A. A. Bayod J. Mur, "Power quality measurements and analisys for wind turbines", IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technical Conference 2000, pp. 1167-1172. May 2000, Baltimore.
  140. Joaquín Mur, Ángel A. Bayod, Jesús Sallán "An Experimental Study on Power Quality Wind Turbines" EWEC '03 (European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition). Madrid, 2003.
  141. Joaquín Mur, Ángel A. Bayod, Jesús Sallán "Profile of voltage in grids with wind farms" EWEC '03 (European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition). Madrid, 2003.
  142. M. Sanz, A. Llombart, J. Mur, R. Sierra, "Análisis de la calidad de la energía eléctrica entregada a la red de los parques eólicos de puntaza de Remolinos". Zaragoza University, April 1999.
  143. M. Sanz, A. Llombart, J. Mur, I. Palacios, "Análisis de la calidad de la energía eléctrica entregada a la red de los parques eólicos de puntaza de Borja", Zaragoza University, September 1999.
  144. M. Sanz, A. Llombart, J. Mur, F. Gómez, "Análisis de la calidad de la energía eléctrica entregada a la red de los parques eólicos de puntaza de Pola", Zaragoza University, December 1999.
  145. M. Sanz, A. Llombart, J. Mur, R. Zapata, D. Romanos, S. Ortiz, "Análisis de la calidad de la energía eléctrica entregada a la red de los parques eólicos de Valdecuadros", Zaragoza University, August 2000.
  146. "Manual de los programas realizados para los estudios en parques eólicos de Companía Eólica Aragonesa S.A.", Zaragoza University, December 21st 1999.
  147. J. Mur, "Parque eólico de VALDECUADROS. Manual de los programas realizados en VISUAL C++", Zaragoza University, March 9th 2000
  148. Joaquín Mur, Ángel Antonio Bayod, Samuel Ortiz , Roberto Zapata "Power Quality Analysis of Wind Turbines. Part II - Dynamic Analysis", ICREP '03 (Internacional Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality), Vigo 2003.
  149. CIRCE Foundation, "AIRE- Análisis Integral de Recursos Energéticos", web page teide.cps.unizar.es: 8080/pub/info.nsf/paginas/diveleaire accesed in October 13rd 2009.
  150. Inycom T&M, "AIRE. Analizador Integral De Recursos Energéticos". Available at www.inycom.es. Accessed in October 13rd 2009.
  151. Sami H. Karaki, Bassel A. Salim, and Riad B. Chedid, "Probabilistic Model of a Two-Site Wind Energy Conversion System", ", IEEE Transactions On Energy Conversion, Vol. 17, No. 4, December 2002
  152. C. Vilar Moreno, "Voltage fluctuation due to constant speed wind generators" Ph.D. dissertation at Carlos III University, Leganés, Spain, 2003.
  153. P. Sorensen, A. D. Hansen, P.A. Carvalho Rosas "Wind models for simulation of power fluctuations from wind farms", Journal of Wind Engineering and Ind. Aerodynamics 90 (2002), pp. 1381-1402
  154. T. Thiringer, T. Petru, and S. Lundberg "Flicker Contribution From Wind Turbine Installations" IEEE Trans, on Energy Conv., Vol. 19, No 1, March 2004, pp 157-163
  155. H. Amarís, J. Usaola. Evaluación en el dominio de la frecuencia de las fluctuaciones de tensión producidas por los generadores eólicos. V Jornadas Hispano-Lusas de Ingeniería Eléctrica. 1997.
  156. W. Wangdee, R. Billinton "Considering Load-Carrying Capability and Wind Speed Correlation of WECS in Generation Adequacy Assessment", IEEE Trans, on Energy Conv., Vol. 21, No 3, Sept. 06, pp 734-741
  157. I. Sánchez, "Short-term prediction of wind energy production," International Journal of Forecasting, 22, 43-56.
  158. W. A. Gardner, "Cyclostationarity in Communications and Signal Processing", IEEE press, 1994.
  159. J. Cidrás, A.E. Feijóo, C. Carrillo González, "Synchronization of Asynchronous Wind Turbines" IEEE Trans, on Energy Conv., Vol. 17, No 4, Nov. 2002, pp 1162-1169
  160. J. Mur, M.P. Comech, "Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Wind Energy Regarding its Statistical Nature", Sixth International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power and Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farm. Delft, 2006.
  161. P. (Prabha) Kundur, Neal J. Balu, Mark G. Lauby, "Power System Stability and Control", McGraw-Hill, 1994.
  162. Chun-Lien Su, "Probabilistic Load-Flow Computation Using Point Estimate Method", IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 20, No. 4, November 2005, pp. 1843-1851.
  163. G. Stefopoulos, A. P. Meliopoulos and G. J. Cokkinides, "Advanced Probabilistic Power Flow Methodology", 15th PSCC, Liege, 22-26 August 2005
  164. H. Hurd, "Notes on the Periodogram", http://www.stat.unc.edu/faculty /hurd.html (accessed on May 16, 2008).
  165. H. Bodén, "Signal Analysis", The Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration Research. http://www.ave.kth.se/education/msce/TSOVM/courses/SD2130/ (accessed on May 16, 2008).
  166. D. M. Meko, "Applied Time Series Analysis", Ch. 6, University of Arizona, Spring 2007, http://www.ltrr.arizona.edu/~dmeko/geos585a.html (accessed on May 16, 2008).
  167. H. Stark and J.Woods, "Probablity and Random Processes with Applications to Signal Processing", Third Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002.
  168. Oppenheim, A. V., R. W. Schafer, and J. R. Buck. "Discrete-Time Signal Processing", 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999.
  169. Timothy M. Hollis, "Power Spectral Density (PSD) Estimation", 2004, www.et.byu.edu/~tmh27/PSD.pdf (accessed January 14, 2008).
  170. J.K. Cavers, Mobile Channel Characteristics, 2nd ed., Shady Island Press, 2003
  171. J. K. Cavers, "Mobile Channel Characteristics", 2nd Ed., Shady Island Press, 2003..
  172. A. Abdi, H. Hashemi, and S. Nader-Esfahani, "On the PDF of the Sum of Random Vectors", IEEE Trans. on Communications. Vol. 48, No.1, January 2000, pp 7-12.
  173. Y. Baghzouz, R. F. Burch et alter "Time-Varying Harmonics: Part II-Harmonic Summation and Propagation", IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, Vol. 17, No. 1, January 2002, pp. 279-285.
  174. S. T. Tentzerakis and S. A. Papathanassiou, "An Investigation of the Harmonic Emissions of Wind Turbines", IEEE Trans, on Energy Conv., Vol. 22, No 1, March. 07, pp 150-158.
  175. M.-S. Alouini, A. Abdi, M. Kaveh, "Sum of Gamma Variates and Performance of Wireless Communication Systems Over Nakagami-Fading Channels", IEEE Trans. On Vehicular Technology, Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 1471-1480.
  176. J.C. Kaimal, "Horizontal Velocity Spectra in an Unstable Surface Layer" Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 35, Issue 1, pp. 18-24
  177. António Martins, Paulo C. Costa, Adriano S. Carvalho, "Coherence And Wakes In Wind Models For Electromechanical And Power Systems Standard Simulations", European Wind Energy Conferences EWEC 2006.
  178. P. Li, H. Banakar, P. K. Keung, H.G. Far, and B.T. Ooi, "Macromodel of Spatial Smoothing in Wind Farms", IEEE Trans, on Energy Conv., Vol. 22, No 1, March. 07, pp 119-128.
  179. M. Schwab, P. Noll, and T. Sikora, "Noise robust relative transfer function estimation", XIV European Signal Processing Conference, September 4 - 8, 2006, Florence, Italy.
  180. P. Norgaard, H. Holttinen, "A Multi-turbine Power Curve Approach", in Proc. 2002 Nordic Wind Power Conference.
  181. IEC 61400-4-15, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques. Section 15: Flickermeter. Functional and design specifications.
  182. Kurt S. Hansen, Gunner Chr. Larsen, "De-trending of turbulence measurements", EWEC 2007, Milan
  183. T. Thiringer, T. Petru, and C. Liljegren "Power Quality Impact of a Sea Located Hybrid Wind Park", IEEE Transactions On Energy Conversion, Vol. 16, No. 2, june 2001 pp. 123-127
  184. T. Petru, T. Thiringer "Active flicker reduction from a sea-based 2.5 MW wind park connected to a weak grid", 2000 Nordic Workshop on Power and Industrial Electronics (NORpie 2000), Aalborg, Denmark, June 13-16, 2000.
  185. T. Thiringer "Power Quality Measurements Performed on a Low-Voltage Grid Equipped with Two Wind Turbines", IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, Vol. 11, No. 3, September 1996
  186. T. Thiringer, J.-A. Dahlberg, "Periodic Pulsations from a Three-Bladed Wind Turbine", IEEE Trans Energy Conversion, Vol. 16, No. 2, June 2001
  187. T. Thiringer, "Frequency Scanning for Power System Property Determination-Applied to a Wind Power Grid" IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 21, No. 2, MAY 2006
  188. Nayeem Rahmat Ulla, "Topic 9.1: Power Quality Evaluation of a Sea Based Wind Farm", Nordic PhD course on Wind Power. Available at www.elkraft.ntnu.no/smola2005
  189. S. A. Papathanassiou and Fritz Santjer, "Power Quality Measurements in an Autonomous Island Grid with High Wind Penetration", IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol 21, No 1, Jan. 2006, pp 218 - 224
  190. T. Petru "Modeling of wind turbines for Power System Studies", Ph. Disertation, Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden2003
  191. P. Sorensen, A. D. Hansena and P. A. Carvalho Rosas, "Wind models for simulation of power fluctuations from wind farms", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 90, No. 12-15, Dec. 2002, pp. 1381-1402.
  192. P. Sorensen, A. Hansen, L. Janosi, J. Bech and B. Bak-Jensen, "Simulation of Interaction between Wind Farm and Power System", Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, December 2001. Available at www.risoe.dk/rispubl/VEA/veapdf/ris-r-1281.pdf
  193. A. D. Hansen, P. Sorensen, F. Blaabjerg and John Becho "Dynamic modelling of wind farm grid interaction", Wind Engineering Vol. 26, No. 4 , 2002, pp. 191-208
  194. W. E. Leithead and S. Domínguez, "Coordinated Control Design for Wind Turbine Control Systems", EWEC 2006, Athens
  195. H. Bindner, P. Norgard, "11kW Gaia Wind Turbine Connected to a Diesel Grid", Riso-I-nr2035(EN), Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde. Available at www.gaia-wind.com.
  196. Stefan Marko, Ivan Darul'a, Stanislav Vlcek, "Development Of Wind Farm Models For Power System Studies", Journal of Electrical Engineering, VOL. 56, NO. 5-6, 2005, pp. 165-168.
  197. K. Johnsen and B. Eliasson, "SIMULINK® Implementation of Wind Farm Model for use in Power System Studies", Nordic Wind Power Conference, 1-2 March, 2004, Chalmers University Of Technology.
  198. J. Pierik, J. Morren, T. Engelen., S. Haan, Jan Bozelie "Development and validation of wind farm models for power system studies. Alsvik wind farm results", EWEC 2006, Athens.
  199. J. Soens, J. Driesen, R. Belmans, "Equivalent Transfer Function for a Variable-speed Wind Turbine in Power System Dynamic Simulations", International Journal of Distributed Energy Resources, Volume 1 Number 2, April-June, 2005; pp. 111-133.
  200. S. M. Ross, "Introduction to Probability Models", Academic Press (Elsevier), 2006.
  201. ^p.N. Thibos, "Fourier Analysis for Beginners", Indiana University, http://research.opt.indiana.edu/ Library/FourierBook/toc.html (accessed on May 16, 2008).
  202. F. D. Neeser, J. L. Massey, "Proper Complex Random Processes with Applications to Information Theory", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 39, No. 4, July 1993, pp. 1293-1302.
  203. B. Picinbono, "On Circularity", IEEE Trans. On Signal Processing, Vol. 42, No 12, Dec. 1994., pp. 3473-3482
  204. J. Mur, J. Sallán, A.A. Bayod, "Statistical model of wind farms for power flow", ICREP 2003, Vigo. Available at : www.joaquinmur.eu
  205. Wind Turbine Generator Systems-Part 21: Measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines, IEC61400-21.
  206. N. Visboll, A. L. Pinegin, T. Fischer, J. Bugge. "Analysis of Advantages of the Double Supply Machine With Variable Rotation Speed Application in Wind Energy Converters". DEWI Magazin Nr. 11, August 1997.
  207. A. Feijoo, J. Cidras. "Analysis of mechanical power fluctuations in asynchronous WECS". IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 284-291. Sept. 1999.
  208. E. Bossanyi, Z. Saad-Saoud and N. Jenkins. Prediction of Flicker Produced by Wind Turbines. Wind Energy 1, pp 35-51. 1998.
  209. IEC 61400-4-15, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques. Section 15: Flickermeter. Functional and design specifications.
  210. CEI IEC 1000-3-7, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Part 3: Limits - Section 7: Assessment of emission limits for fluctuating loads in MV and HV power systems - Basic EMC publication.
  211. Ministerio de Industria y Energía, "Orden de 5 de Septiembre de 1985", BOE número 219, ano 1985.
  212. Joris Soens, "Impact Of Wind Energy In A Future Power Grid", Ph.D. Dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, December 2005.
  213. Z. Lubosny, "Wind Turbine Operation in Electric Power Systems", Ed. Springer 2003.
  214. G. C. Larsen, W. Bierbooms and K. S. Hansen, "Mean Gust Shapes", Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark.. December 2003, Riso-R-1133(EN)
  215. W. Bierbooms, "Specific gust shapes leading to extreme response of pitch regulated wind turbines", The Science Of Making Torque From Wind, 28-31 August 2007, Technical University of Denmark
  216. Bierbooms, WAAM (2005). Constrained stochastic simulation - generation of time series around some specific event in a normal process. Extremes, 8(3), 207-224.
  217. P. S. Veers, Three dimensional wind simulation, Sandia National Laboratories, SAND88-0152, 1988.
  218. J. Mur, "EQWIGUST, EQuivallent WInd GUST", 2009.
  219. E. Bertin, M. Clusell, "Generalised extreme value statistics and sum of correlated variables", J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39, 7607 (2006)
  220. G. C. Larsen, K. S. Hansen, "Statistical Model of Extreme Shear", Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, November 2005, Vol. 127, No. 4, pp. 444-455.
  221. G. C. Larsen, "An asymptotic closed form solution for the distribution of combined wind speed and wind direction extremes", The Science of Making Torque, 2007. Technical University of Denmark
  222. Z. Warhaft, "Passive scalars in turbulent flows", Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2000. 32:203-240.
  223. M. Nielsen, G. C. Larsen, J.Mann, S. Ott, K. S. Hansen, and B. J. Pedersen, "Wind Simulation for Extreme and Fatigue Loads", Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark. January 2004, Riso-R- 1437 (EN).
  224. J. Gottschall and J. Peinke, "Stochastic modelling of a wind turbine's power output with special respect to turbulent dynamics", The Science Of Making Torque From Wind, 28-31 August 2007, Technical University of Denmark.
  225. M. Wächter, A. Rettenmeier, M. Kühn and J. Peinke, "Wind velocity measurements using a pulsed LIDAR system: first results", IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 1 (2008).
  226. F. Böttcher, S. Barth and J. Peinke, "2007 Stoch Environ Res Ris Assess", 21 299-308
  227. J.A. Molina, G.G. Farias, R.M. Dagnino, "A practical procedure to estimate the shape parameter in the generalized Gaussian distribution", Technical Repport, Centro de Investigación en Matemáticas, Guanajuato University, Mexico, 2001.
  228. B. Fox, D. Flynn, L. Bryans, N. Jenkins, D. Milborrow, M. O'Malley, R. Watson, O. Anaya-Lara, "Wind Power Integration: Connection and System Operational Aspects", Willey, 2007
  229. S. Rizzo and .A. Rapisarda, "Application of superstatistics to atmospheric turbulence", International Conference Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity, Erice (Sicily) July 20-26 2004.
  230. S. Rizzo and .A. Rapisarda, "Environmental atmospheric turbulence at Florence airport", 8th Experimental Chaos Conference, 14-17 June 2004, Florence, ITALY, AIP Conference proceedings Vol. 742 , p.176.
  231. F. Böttcher, St. Barth, and J. Peinke, "Small and Large Scale Fluctuations in Atmospheric Wind Speeds", Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment (SERRA) 21, 299 (2007)
  232. St. Barth, F. Böttcher and J. Peinke, "Superposition model for atmospheric turbulence", Wind Energy - Proceedings of the Euromech Colloquium, Springer, Berlin 2007, p. 115 -118
  233. A. Wessel, J. Peinke and B. Lange, "Modelling turbulence intensities inside wind farms", Wind Energy - Proceedings of the Euromech Colloquium, Springer, Berlin 2007, p. 253 - 256
  234. J. F. Price, "Lagrangian and Eulerian Representations of Fluid Flow: Kinematics and the Equations of Motion", 2006
  235. P. Tabeling, "Two-dimensional turbulence: a physicist approach", Physics Reports, Volume 362, Issue 1, May 2002, Pages 1-62,
  236. A.E. Gill, "Atmosphere-ocean Dynamics". Academic Press, NY. 1982.
  237. M., Hossain, "Reduction of the dimensionality of turbulence due to a strong rotation". Phys. Fluids 6 (4), 1077-1080. 1994.
  238. W.D. McComb, "The Physics of Fluid Turbulence". Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1992.
  239. Y. Zhou, "A phenomenological treatment of rotating turbulence". Phys. Fluids, 7 (8), 2092-2094. 1995.
  240. P. Constantin "Energy spectrum of quasigeostrophic turbulence". Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (18), 184501-184504. 2002.
  241. S. Rizzo and .A. Rapisarda, "Application of superstatistics to atmospheric turbulence", International Conference Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity, Erice (Sicily) July 20-26 2004.
  242. S. Rizzo and .A. Rapisarda, "Environmental atmospheric turbulence at Florence airport", 8th Experimental Chaos Conference, 14-17 June 2004, Florence, ITALY, AIP Conference proceedings Vol. 742 , p.176.
  243. F. Böttcher, St. Barth, and J. Peinke, "Small and Large Scale Fluctuations in Atmospheric Wind Speeds", Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment (SERRA) 21, 299 (2007)
  244. St. Barth, F. Böttcher and J. Peinke, "Superposition model for atmospheric turbulence", Wind Energy - Proceedings of the Euromech Colloquium, Springer, Berlin 2007, p. 115 -118
  245. A. Wessel, J. Peinke and B. Lange, "Modelling turbulence intensities inside wind farms", Wind Energy - Proceedings of the Euromech Colloquium, Springer, Berlin 2007, p. 253 - 256
  246. M. Wächter, A. Rettenmeier, M. Kühn and J. Peinke, "Wind velocity measurements using a pulsed LIDAR system: first results", IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 1 (2008).
  247. J. Peinke, E. Anahua, St. Barth, H. Gontier, A.P. Schaffarczyk, D. Kleinhaus , R. Friedrich, "Turbulence: a Challanging Issue for the Wind Energy Conversion", EWEC 2008 Procedings.
  248. N. Barberis Negra, O. Holmstrom, B. Bak-Jensen, P. Sorensen, "Model of a synthetic wind speed time series generator", Wind Energy. 2008 ; vol. 11, nr. 2, September.
  249. M Nielsen, G C Larsen, K S Hansen, "Simulation of inhomogeneous, non-stationary and non-Gaussian turbulent winds", The Science of Making Torque from Wind, IOP Publishing, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 75 (2007)
  250. J. Eggers, Z. J. Wang, "Crossover behavior in turbulent velocity fluctuations", Physical Review E, Vol. 57, No. 4, April 1998
  251. K. Gurley, M. Tognarelli, and A. Kareem, "Analysis and Simulation Tools for Wind Engineering", Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 12(1), pp. 9-31, 1997.
  252. M. Grigoriu, "Non-Gaussian models for stochastic mechanics", Prob. Engn. Mech., 15, 15-23. (2000).
  253. [ ] St. Lück1, Ch. Renner, J. Peinke and R. Friedrich, "The Markov- Einstein coherence length - a new meaning for the Taylor length in Turbulence", Physics letters. A, 2006, vol. 359, no5, pp. 335-338
  254. H.J. Kushner and G. Yin. "Stochastic Approximation Algorithms and Applications". Springer-Verlag, 1997. Revised second edition, 2003.
  255. Kushner, H. J. and P. G. Dupuis. "Numerical Methods for Stochastic Control Problems in Continuous Time", Springer; 2nd Rev. Edition (Jan 2001)
  256. S. O. Rice, "Mathematical analysis of random noise," Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 23, pp. 282-332, July 1944; vol. 24, pp. 46-156, Jan. 1945. Reprinted in N. Wax (ed.), Selected papers on noise and stochastic processes, Dover Publ.
  257. D.E. Cartwright, and M. S. Longuet-Higgins, "The statistical distribution of the maxima of a random function", Proc. Royal Soc. London Ser. A 237, 212-232. (1956).
  258. G. C. Larsen, W. Bierbooms, K. S. Larsen, "Statistics of Local Extremes", December 2003, Riso-R-1220(EN), Roskilde, Denmark.
  259. "Database on Wind Characteristics", Available at http://www.winddata.com
  260. P. Prandoni and M. Vetterli, "Signal Processing for Communications", EPFL press, 2008. Available at http://www.sp4comm.org/webversion.html
  261. M. Ebden, "Gaussian Processes for Regression: A Quick Introduction", Oxford University, August 2008. Avalaible at http://www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~mebden
  262. /reports/GPtutorial.pdf
  263. C. E. Rasmussen, C. K. I. Williams, "Gaussian Processes for Machine Learning", MIT Press, 2006. Available at http://www.gaussianprocess.org/gpml
  264. O. Kallenberg, "Foundations on Modern Probability", Spinger, 2nd Ed., 2002.
  265. W. Bierbooms, "Simulation of stochastic wind fields which encompass measured wind speed series", Proceedings of the EWEC 2004, (pp. 1-12). Brussel: EWEA.
  266. M. Shinozuka, C. M. Jan. "Digital simulation of random processes and its applications", Journal of Sound and Vibration, 25, No 1, 111-128, 1972.
  267. Shinozuka, M.: Simulation of multivariate and multidimensional random processess. J. Acoust. Soc. America. 357-368 (1971)
  268. W.Bierbooms, Po-Wen Cheng; G. Larsen, B. J. Pedersen, "Modelling of Extreme Gusts for Design Calculations - NewGust", The European commission, contract JOULE III JOR3-CT98-0239, Final Report. TU Delft, 2001, 25 p
  269. W.A.A.M Bierbooms, "Constrained Stochastic Simulation Of Wind Gusts For Wind Turbine Design", DUWIND Delft University Wind Energy Research Institute, March 2009.
  270. G. Lindgren, "Some properties of a normal process near a local maximum", Ann. Math. Stat. 41, 1870-1883 (1970).
  271. C.R. Rao, "Linear Statistical Inference and its Applications", Wiley, 1965.
  272. R.E. Mortensen, "Random Signals and Systems", Wiley, New York, 1987.
  273. G. Moe, J. M. Niedzwecki, "Frequency of maxima of non-narrow banded stochastic processes", Applied Ocean Research, Vol. 27, Issue 6, Dec. 2005, pp. 265-272.
  274. S. L. Miller, D. G. Childers "Probability and Random Processes: With Applications to Signal Processing and Communications", 2nd Ed., Academic Press, 2004.
  275. S. Kotz, N. Lloyd Johnson, N. Balakrishnan, "Continuous Multivariate Distributions: Models and Applications", 2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, 2000.
  276. M. R. Milligan, "Modeling Utility-Scale Wind Power Plants. Part 2: Capacity Credit". NREL/TP-500-29701. March 2002.
  277. R. Billinton, W. Li, "Reliability Assessment of Electric Power Systems Using Monte Carlo Methods", Plenum Press, NY, pp. 351, 1994.
  278. Kushner, H. J. and P. G. Dupuis. "Numerical Methods for Stochastic Control Problems in Continuous Time", Springer; 2nd Rev. Edition (Jan 2001)
  279. Sato-Ilic, Mika, Jain, Lakhmi C., "Innovations in Fuzzy Clustering. Theory and Applications", Springer 2006.
  280. Scott Beaver and Ahmet Palazoglu, "Cluster Analysis of Hourly Wind Measurements to Reveal Synoptic Regimes Affecting Air Quality", Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 45 (2006), No 12, pp. 1710-1726.
  281. J. Filar, K. Vrieze, "Competitive Markov Decision Processes", 1997, Springer.
  282. M.L. Putterman, "Markov Decision Processes. Discrete Stochastic Dynamic Programming", John Willey, New York, 1994.
  283. J. R. Norris, "Markov Chains", Cambridge University Press, 1996
  284. Wai-Ki Ching, Michael K. Ng, "Markov Chains. Models, Algorithms and Applications", Springer 2006.
  285. V. G. Kulkarni, "Modeling, Analysis, Design, and Control of Stochastic Systems", Springer 1999.
  286. O. Cappé, E. Moulines, T. Rydén, "Inference in Hidden Markov Models", Springer, 2005.
  287. Munk, C. "Numerical Methods for Continuous-Time, Continuous-State Stochastic Control Problems". Publications from Department of Management 11, Odense University, 1997
  288. Avrachenkov, K., Sanchez, E. "Fuzzy chains and decision-making". Fuzzy Optim. Decis. Making 1 (2), 143-159, 2002.
  289. J.J. Buckley and E. Eslami, "Fuzzy Markov Chains: Uncertain Probabilities", Mathware and Soft Computing, 9(1):33-41, 2002.
  290. F. Salzenstein, C. Collet, S. Lecam and M. Hatt "Non-stationary fuzzy Markov chain", Pattern Recognition Letters 28 (2007) 2201-2208.
  291. J.J. Buckley, "Fuzzy Probabilities. New Approach and Applications", Springer, 2005.
  292. IEC 61400-12-1, Wind Turbines - Part 121: Power performance measurements of electricity producing wind turbines. 2007.
  293. IEC 61400-21, Wind Turbines - Part 21: Measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines. 1st Edition, 2001.
  294. Royal Degree 436/2004, Boletín Oficial del Estado. Publishing date: 27th March 2004. Available: http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2004-03-27/pdfs/A13217-13238.pdf
  295. John H. Mathews and Kurtis Fink, "Numerical Methods using Matlab", 4th edition, 2004.
  296. J. Mur Amada, A.A. Bayod Rújula, "Characterization of Spectral Density of Wind Farm Power Output", 9th Conference on Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU'2007), Barcelona, 2007. ISBN 978-84-690-9441-9.
  297. Janusz Marecki, Sven Koenig, Milind Tambe "A Fast Analytical Algorithm for Solving Markov Decision Processes with Continuous Resources" In Proceedings of the 20th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), 2007
  298. Barry L. Nelson, "Stochstic Modeling (Analysis & Simulation)", Mac Graw-Hill, New York, 1995.
  299. A.K. Jain, M.N. Murty, P.J. Flynn, "Data Clustering: A Review", ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 31, No. 3, September 1999
  300. J. Mur, A. A. Bayod "Characterization of wind farm energy production in a zone by artificial neuronal networks", ICREP '03 (Internacional Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality), Vigo 2003.
  301. Sato-Ilic, Mika, Jain, Lakhmi C., "Innovations in Fuzzy Clustering. Theory and Applications", Springer 2006.
  302. Shaning AD, Sen Z. "First-order Markov chain approach to wind speed modeling". J. Wind. Engineering Ind. Aerodynamics 2001¸ 89: 263-9.
  303. A. Shamshad, M.A. Bawadi, W.M.A. Wand Hussing, T.A. Majid, S.A.M. Sanusi, "First and second order Markov chain models for synthetic generation of wind speed time series", Energy 30, 693-708, 2005.
  304. Chistopher C. Tan, Norman C. Beaulieu, "On First-Order Markov Modeling for the Rayleigh Fading Channel", IEEE Trans. Communications, Vol. 48, No. 12, Dec 2000.
  305. C.P. Robert, "Discretization and MCMC Convergence Assessment", Spinger, 1998
  306. M. K. Simon, S. M. Hinedi, and W. C. Lindsey, Digital Communication Techniques: Signal Design and Detection. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1994.
  307. R. C. Titsworth and L. R. Welch, "Power spectra of signal modulated by random and pseudorandom sequences," Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA, Tech. Rep. 32-140, Oct. 1961.
  308. D. F. Bishop, S. Million, T. M. Nguyen, and M. K. Simon, "Power Spectrum of Unbalanced NRZ and Biphase Signals in the Presence of Data Asymmetry", IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 40, No. 1, February 1998
  309. Y. Yang, "General method for computing the power spectrum density of irreducible periodic Markov chains" IEEE GLOBECOM 98, Vol. 6, pp. 3320-3325, 8-12 Nov. 1998.
  310. Papaefthymiou G, Klöckl B., "MCMC for Wind Power Simulation" IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion,
  311. G. George Yin, Quing Zhang, "Discrete-Time Markov Chains. Two-Time-Scale Methods and Applications", Springer, 2005.
  312. Alan S. WillSky, "Multiresolution Markov Models for Signal and Image Processing", Proceedings IEEE, Vol. 90, No. 8, August 2002.
  313. Anne Benoit, L. Brenner, P. Fernandes, B. Plateau, "Aggregation of stochastic automata networks with replicas", Linear Algebra and its Applications 386 (2004) 111-136.
  314. William J. Stewart, "Introduction to the Numerical Solution of Markov Chains", Princeton University Press, 1994.
  315. Per Norgard, Gregor Giebel, Hannele Holttinen, Lennart Söder, Astrid Petterteig, "Fluctuations and predictability of wind and hydropower", Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, June 2004
  316. Report of the Research Project "Análisis de la Energía entregada a la red de distribución eléctrica por las Centrales Eólicas - Companía Eólica Aragonesa S.A.", Zaragoza University, January 1999.
  317. Report of the Research Project "Análisis de la Energía entregada a la red de distribución eléctrica por las Centrales Eólicas - Neg-Micon Eólica S.A.", Zaragoza University, November 2000.
  318. Hannele Holttinen, "Hourly Wind Power Variations in the Nordic Countries", Wind Energy, vol. 8 (2005), Issue 2, pp.173-195.
  319. K. Altaii, R.N. Farrugia, "Wind characteristics on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico", Renewable Energy 28 (2003) pp. 1701-1710.
  320. Gilbert M. Masters, "Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems" , Wiley 2004.
  321. G. Papaefthymiou, "Integration of Stochastic Generation in Power Systems", Ph.D Thesis, Delft 2006
  322. Holttinen, H.; Lemström, B.; Meibom, P.; Bindner, H.; Orths, A. et al. "Design and operation of power systems with large amounts of wind power", 2007. VTT Working Papers : 82, Espoo. 119 p. + app. 25 p.
  323. B. Parsons, M. Milligan, B. Zavadil, D. Brooks, B. Kirby, K. Dragoon, J. Caldwell, "Grid Impacts of Wind Power: A Summary of Recent Studies in the United States", EWEC 2003.
  324. [ ]B. Bidabad, B. Bidabad, "Complex Probability and Markov Stochastic Process". Proceeding of the 1st Iranian Statistics Conference, Isfehan University of Technology, 1992.
  325. ^pawrence R. Rabiner, "A Tutorial on Hidden Markov Models and Selected Applications in Speech Recognition", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 77, No. 2, February 1989
  326. Isaac Van der Hoven, "Power Spectrum Of Horizontal Wind Speed In The Frequency Range From 0.0007 To 900 Cycles Per Hour", Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 14, Issue 2, pp. 160-164
  327. Tore Heggem, Rune Lende, And Jorgen Lovseth, "Analysis of Long Time Series of Coastal Wind", Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 55, Issue 18, pp. 2907-2917
  328. P. Sorensen, N. A. Cutululis, J. Hjerrild, L. Jensen, M. Donovan, L. E. A. Christensen, H. Madsen, A. Vigueras-Rodríguez, "Power Fluctuations from Large Offshore Wind Farms", Nordic Wind Power Conference, 22-23 May, 2006, Espoo, Finland.
  329. K. Saranyasoontorn, L. Manuel, Paul S. Veers, "A Comparison of Standard Coherence Models form Inflow Turbulence With Estimates from Field Measurements", Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 126, Issue 4, pp. 1069-1082
  330. J.C. Kaimal, "Horizontal Velocity Spectra in an Unstable Surface Layer" Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 35, Issue 1, pp. 18-24
  331. Wind energy barometer 2008. EurObserv'ER Systemes solaires Le journal des énergies renouvelables , n° 4, 2009.
  332. Red Eléctrica de Espana, "The Spanish Power System. Wind power generation in real time", Available: http://www.ree.es/ingles/i-index_de.html
  333. Order of Energy and Industry Ministry of date 5-9-1985, Published in BOE 12-9-1985, no. 219, pp. 28810.
  334. J. Mur Amada, Ma Paz Comech Moreno, "Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Wind Energy Regarding its Statistical Nature", 6th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power and Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms. Delft, 2006.
  335. G. George Yin, Qing Zhang, "Discrete-Time Markov Chains: two-time-scale methods and applications", Springer Mathematics, 2005.
  336. Vidyadhar G. Kulkarni "Modeling, analysis, design, and control of stochastic system", Springer-Verlang New York 1999.
  337. R. Billinton and R. N. Allan, Reliability Evaluation of Power Systems, 2nd ed. New York: Plenum Press, 1996.
  338. A. D. Gordon, "Classification", CRC Press, 2nd Ed. 1999.
  339. B. S. Everitt, S. Landau and M. Leese, "Cluster Analysis", Oxford University Press, 4th Ed. 2001.
  340. IEC 61400-12-3, Wind turbine generator systems - Part 12-3: wind farm power performance testing, 2005. Working Group Draft.
  341. Nikolai V. Shokhirev, "Hidden Markov Models", Available at www.shokhirev.com/nikolai/abc/alg/ hmm/hmm.html
  342. C. Luo and B. T. Ooi, "Frequency Deviation of Thermal Power Plants Due to Wind Farms", IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, Sept. 2006, Vol. 21, N. 3, pp. 708-716.
  343. Rodriguez, J.M.; Fernandez, J.L.; Beato, D.; Iturbe, R.; Usaola, J.; Ledesma, P.; Wilhelmi, J.R.; "Incidence on power system dynamics of high penetration of fixed speed and doubly fed wind energy systems: study of the Spanish case", IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 17, No 4, Nov. 2002, Pp.1089 - 1095
  344. Cigré, Working Group C1.3, "Electric Power System Planning with the Uncertainty of Wind Generation" Technical Report 293, April 2006.
  345. Wan, Y. "Wind Power Plant Behaviours: Analyses of Long-Term Wind Power Data". NREL/TP-500-36651, Aug. 2004. Available at www.osti.gov/ bridge
  346. S. M. Ross, "Introduction to Probability Models", Academic Press, 8th Edition, 2003.
  347. G. Stefopoulos, A. P. Meliopoulos and G. J. Cokkinides, "Advanced probabilistic Power Flow Methodology", 15th PSCC, Liege, 2005
  348. Chun-Lien Su, "Probabilistic Load-Flow Computation Using Point Estimate Method", IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 20, no. 4, Nov. 2005.
  349. G. Verbic, C. A. Canizares, "Probabilistic Optimal Power Flow in Electricity Markets Based on a Two Point Estimate Method", IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp.1883 - 1893, Nov. 2006.
  350. G. J. Anders, "Probability conceps in electric power systems", Ed. Wiley, 1991.
  351. R. Billinton and R. N. Allan, Reliability Evaluation of Power Systems, 2nd ed. New York: Plenum Press, 1996.
  352. D. Pena, "Análisis de datos multivariantes", McGraw-Hill, 2002.
  353. P. Fernandes, B. Plateau and W. J. Stewart, "Efficient Descriptor-vector Multiplications in Stochastic Automata Networks", Journal of the ACM, Vol. 45, No. 3, May 1998, pp. 381-414.
  354. J. Mur, J. Sallán, A.A. Bayod, "Statistical model of wind farms for power flow", ICREP 2003, Vigo.
  355. J. Mur, M. P. Comech, "Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Wind Energy Regarding its Statistical Nature", Sixth International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power and Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farm. Delft, 2006.
  356. UNE 206005 IN Determinación de la capacidad de regulación de potencia reactiva de parques eólicos. 2004 (Assesment of the reactive power ability of wind farms).
  357. Ali Abur, Antonio Gómez Expósito, "Power System State Estimation: Theory and Implementation", CRC Press, 2004.
  358. J. Mur, A. A. Bayod "Characterization of wind farm energy production in a zone by artificial neuronal networks", ICREP '03, Vigo 2003.
  359. W. J. Stewart, "Introduction to the Numerical Solution of Markov Chains", Princeton University Press, 1994.
  360. Schuhmacher, J., 1993. "INSEL - Interactive Simulation of Renewable Electrical Energy Supply Systems-, Reference Manual". University of Oldenburg, Renewable Energy Group, Dept. of Physics, PO Box 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg.
  361. R. Dufo, "Dimensionamiento y control óptimos de sistemas híbridos aplicando algoritmos evolutivos", PhD., Zaragoza University, 2007.
  362. B. Givan and R. Parr, "An Introduction to Markov Decision Processes", Purdue University, 2001.
  363. E. A. Feinberg and A. Shwartz (editors), "Handbook of Markov Decision Processes. Methods and Applications", Kluwer 2002.
  364. Raúl Vicastillo-Golvano, "Optimización de un banco de condensadores y reactancias en la subestación de un parque eólico", Graduation Project, Zaragoza University, June 2009.
  365. Andrés E. Feijóo, José Cidrás "Modeling of Wind Farms in the Load Flow Analysis", IEEE Trans. Power Systems, Vol. 15, No. 2, Feb. 2000, pp. 110-115.
  366. UNE-EN 50160 "Voltage characteristics supplied by general distribution networks" (in Spanish). 1999.
  367. Royal Decree 436/2004, Boletín Oficial del Estado. Publishing date: 27th March 2004. Available at http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/ 2004-03-27/pdfs/A13217-13238.pdf
  368. N. Jenkins, R. Allan, P. Crossley, D. Kirschen and G. Strbac "Embedded Generation", Ed. IEE 2000
  369. Sveca, J., Soder, L., "Wind power integration in power systems with bottleneck problems", Power Tech Conference Proceedings, 2003 IEEE Bologna
  370. V. Akhmatov, H. Knudsen, "An aggregate model of a grid-connected, large-scale, offshore wind farm for power stability investigations ¬ importance of windmill mechanical system", Electrical Power and Energy Sistems 24 (2002) pp. 709-717
  371. IEC 61400-12-1, Wind turbine generator systems - Part 121: Power performance measurements of electricity producing wind turbines, 2006. Committee Draft.
  372. Suresh H. Jangamshetti, V. Guruprasada Rau "Normalized Power Curves as a Tool for Identification of Optimum Wind Turbine Generator Parameters", IEEE Trans, on Energy Conv., Vol. 16, No 3, Sept. 2001, pp 283-288.
  373. G. J. Anders, "Probability conceps in electric power systems", Ed. Wiley, 1991.
  374. C.L. Masters, J. Mutale, G. Strbac, S. Curcic and N. Jenkins "Statistical evalualtion of voltages in distribution systems with embedded wind generation", IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib. Vol. 147, No 4, July 2000, pp. 207-212.
  375. IEC 61400-12-3, Wind turbine generator systems - Part 12-3: wind farm power performance testing, 2005. Working Group Draft.
  376. J.L. Rodríguez Amenedo, J.C. Burgos Díaz, S. Arnalte Gómez "Sistemas Eólicos de Producción de Energía Eléctrica. Editorial Rueda S.L., 2003.
  377. Statistical Methods of Uncertainty Analysis for Metrology and Scientific Laboratories ISO 7C69/SC6/WG2 Draft 2. Available at http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/carroll/u1.htm
  378. J. Mur, J. Sallán, A.A. Bayod, "Statistical model of wind farms for power flow", ICREP 2003, Vigo.
  379. UNE 206005 IN Determinación de la capacidad de regulación de potencia reactiva de parques eólicos. 2004 (Assesment of the reactive power ability of wind farms).
  380. T. Ackerman, "Wind Power in Power Systems". Ed. Whiley 2005.
  381. OM 12/1/1995, Boletín Oficial del Estado. Publishing date: 14th January 1995. Available at http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/ 1995/01/14/pdfs/A01355-01377.pdf
  382. ^p. Bryans et Al., "Electric Power System Planning with the uncertainty of wind generation". CIGRÉ, Tecnical Brochure 293, W.G. C1.3.
  383. ISO - Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement, 1995.
  384. IEC 61400-12-2, Wind turbine generator systems - Part 12-2: Verification of power performance of individual wind turbines, 2005. Working Group Draft.
  385. R. Allan, R. Billinton, "Probabilistic Assessment of Power Systems", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 88, No 2, February 2000, pp 140-162.
  386. C. Gherasim, "Signal Processing for Voltage and Current Measurements in Power Quality Assessment", PhD. Thesis, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, May 2006
  387. Klaus Heuk, Klaus-Dieter Dettmann, "Elektrische Energieversorgung", Vieweg, 3rd edition.
  388. J. Mann, G.C. Larsen and T.J. Larsen, "Towards more realistic extreme load predictions", EWEC 2006, February 2006.
  389. Igor Djuroic, Ljbisa Stankovic. "A Virtual Instrument for Time-Frequency Analysys". IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 48, no. 6, December, 1999.
  390. Tomasz P. Zielinski. "Joint Time-Frequency Resolution of Signal Analysis Using Gabor Transform" IEEE Trans. on Instr. Meas. Vol. 50, No. 5, pp. 1436-1444. 2001.
  391. M. O. L. Hansen, "Aerodynamics of wind turbines", 2nd Ed., Earthscan 2008.
  392. J. Peeters, "Simulation of dynamic drive train loads in a wind turbine", Ph. D. Dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 2006.
  393. A. Ahlström, "Aeroelastic Simulation of Wind Turbine Dynamics", Ph.D., KTH, Stockholm, 2005
  394. J.F. Manwell, J.G. McGowan and A.L. Rogers, "Wind Energy Explained. Theory, Design and Application.", 2002, Wiley
  395. Eric Hau, "Wind Turbines. Fundamentals, Technologies, Application, Economics", 2nd Ed., Springer 2006.
  396. R. Lanzafame, M. Messina, "Fluid dynamics wind turbine design: Critical analysis, optimization and application of BEM theory", Renewable Energy 32 (2007) 2291-2305
  397. J. Jonkman, "Aeroelastic Simulation: FAST", Wind Turbine Design Codes Workshop, National Wind Technology Center, September 13-15, 2005.
  398. "AeroDyn User's Guide", version 12.50, Dec. 2002.
  399. F.M.White "Fluid Mechanics", 5th Ed., McGraw Hill International, (2003)
  400. F. Kießling, "Modellierung des aeroelastischen Gesamtsystems einerWindturbine mit Hilfe symbolischer Programmierung", DFVLR report, DFVLR-FB 84-10, 1984
  401. Snyder, M.H., "Wakes Produced by a Single Element and Multiple Element Wind Turbine Towers". Wind Energy Conversion Devices, Von-Kármán-Institut, 1981
  402. ^p.J. Vermeer, J.N.Sorensen y A. Crespo (2003) "Wind Turbine Wake Aerodynamics" Progress in Aerospace Sciences. Vol. 39. Issues 6-7. Agosto-Octubre 2003. pp. 467-510.
  403. O. Rathmann, S. Frandsen, R. Barthelmie, "Wake modelling for intermediate and large wind farms", EWEC 2007.
  404. Frandsen, S.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Rathmann, O.; Jorgensen, H.E.; Badger, J.; Hansen, K.; Ott, S.; Rethore, P.-E.; Larsen, S.E.; Jensen, L.E., Summary report: The shadow effect of large wind farms: measurements, data analysis and modelling. Riso-R-1615(EN) (2007) 35 p.
  405. R.J. Barthelmie, S.T. Frandsen, K. Hansen, J.G. Schepers, K. Rados, W. Schlez , A. Neubert, L.E. Jensen, S. Neckelmann, "Modelling the impact of wakes on power output at Nysted and Horns Rev", EWEC2008.
  406. R.J. Barthelmie, S.T. Frandsen, O. Rathmann, K. Hansen, E.S. Politis, J. Prospathopoulos, D. Cabezón, K. Rados, S.P. van der Pijl, J.G. Schepers, W. Schlez, J. Phillips and A. Neubert, "Flow and wakes in large wind farms in complex terrain and offshore", EWEC 2008
  407. A. Martins, P. C. Costa, A. S. Carvalho, "Coherence and wakes in wind models for electromechanical and power systems standard simulations", EWEC 2006.
  408. A Jimenez, A Crespo, E Migoya and J Garcia "Large-eddy simulation of spectral coherence in a wind turbine wake", Environ. Res. Lett. 3 (January-March 2008).
  409. A. Knauer, T.D. Hanson, B. Skaare, "Offshore Wind Turbine Loads in Deep-water Environment", EWEC 2006.
  410. Vermeulen PEJ. "An experimental analysis of wind turbine wakes". Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wind Energy Systems, Lyngby, Denmark; 1980; 431-450.
  411. WAsP Manual, "Wake effect model", available at http://www.wasp.dk
  412. R.J. Barthelmie, O. Rathmann, S.T. Frandsen, K. Hansen, E. Politis, J Prospathopoulos, K. Rados, D. Cabezón, W. Schlez, J. Phillips, A. Neubert, J.G. Schepers and S.P. van der Pijl, "Modelling and measurements of wakes in large wind farms", The Science of Making Torque from Wind, IOP Publishing, 2007.
  413. B. Lange, H.P. Waldl, R. BarthelmieA. Gil-Guerrero, D. Heinemann, "Modelling of offshore wind turbine wakes with the wind farm program FLaP", Wind Energy, Vol. 6 Issue 1, Pp. 87 - 104.
  414. R. Barthelmie, G. Larsen, S. Pryor, H. Bergström, M. Magnusson, W. Schlez, K. Rados, B. Lange, P. Volund, S. Neckelmann, S. Mogensen, G. Schepers, T. Hegberg, L. Folkerts, "ENDOW: EfficieNt Development of Offshore Windfarms", Wind Energy, Vol. 7, Issue 3, Pp. 225 - 245
  415. J. Mur, "Wind Power Variability in the Grid", Ph.D Thesis, Zaragoza University, October 2009.
  416. Dennis C. Ghiglia, Mark D. Pritt, "Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping : Theory, Algorithms, and Software", June, 1998.
  417. R. L. Smith, "Time Series", University of North Carolina, 1999. www.stat.unc.edu/faculty/rsmith.html (accessed on May 16, 2008).
  418. W. A. Ardner, A. Napolitano, L. Paura, "Cyclostationarity: Half a century of research", Signal Processing 86 (2006) 639-697.
  419. A. Papoulis, "Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes", McGraw-Hill, 4th ed., 2002.
  420. O. Kallenberg, "Foundations of Modern Probability", Springer, 2nd Ed., 2002.
  421. I. Fleischer, A. Kooharian, "On the Statistical Treatment of Stochastic Processes", The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, Vol. 29, No. 2 (Jun., 1958), pp. 544-549.


  422. EWEA, "Wind Energy, the Facts - Wind Power Variability and Impacts on Power Systems"
  423. W. Katzenstein, "Wind Power Variability, Its Cost, and Effect on Power Plant Emissions", PhD. Dissertation, July 2010.
  424. Paul-Frederik Bach, "The Variability of Wind Power, Collected Papers 2009-2011", Renewable Energy Foundation, 2011.
  425. Andre Shoucri and David R. Baker, "Montana Wind Power Variability Study", GENIVAR, September 2008.
  426. Rui Wang and David R. Baker, "Alberta Wind Power Variability Study", Phoenix Engineering Inc., July 2005.
  427. RenewableUK, "Wind Power and Variability", Renewable-UK Fact Sheet 02, June 2010.
  428. Edvard Csanyi, "Wind Variability", Electrical Engineering Portal, November 2010.

Contact me at the Centro Universitario de la Defensa Zaragoza (Defence Universitary Center at Zaragoza, Spain).